Reversing Language Shift: Can Kwak'wala be Revived?
Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of North Dakota.
Available for reading or download as a
Portable Document Format file.
Although focussed on Kwak'wala, contains a valuable general
discussion of the circumstances under which language revival is possible.
Brandt, Elizabeth A. and Vivian A. Youngman (1989)
``Language renewal and language maintenance: a practical guide,''
Canadian Journal of Native Education16.2.42-77.
An excellant discussion of issues in language maintenance and
revitalization, with detailed practical suggestions.
It is surprising and unfortunate that this article is not more widely known.
Dauenhauer, Nora Marks and Richard Dauenhauer (1998)
``Technical, emotional and ideological issues in reversing language shift:
examples from Southeast Alaska,''
in Grenoble, Lenore A. and Lindsay J. Whaley (eds.)
Endangered Languages: current issues and future prospects.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57-98.
A discussion by a Tlingit woman and her husband, both of whom have
worked on Tlingit language issues for many years, of the many factors
that stand in the way of successful language maintenance. An important
paper that says things that even people who are aware of them are often
unwilling to say publicly.
Dorian, Nancy C. (editor) (1989)
Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
A collection of papers on various aspects of language death, ranging
from the social circumstances in which a language declines to the
ways in which the language itself changes when it is on its last legs.
Douglas, E. Te Kohu (1992)
"Maori Language Nests (Kohanga Reo) - Their Impact on New Zealand
Journal of Indigenous Studies3.1.13-31.
Fishman, Joshua A. (1991)
Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of
Assistance to Threatened Languages.
Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
This is the most important theoretical study of language maintenance and revival.
On the basis of a detailed analysis of a variety of threatened languages and
attempts at maintenance and revival, Fishman explains the factors that affect
language survival and provides valuable advice.
Fishman, Joshua (1997)
``Maintaining Languages: What Works? What Doesn't?'' in
Cantoni, Gina (ed.) (1997)
Stabilizing Indigenous Languages
Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, Center for Excellence in Education.
Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.)
Can threatened languages be saved?
Toronto: Multilingual Matters. 2001.
ISBN 1-85359-493-8 (paperback). ISBN 1-85359-492-X (hardcover).
A collection of 19 papers on reversing language shift dealing with
languages around the world. Many of the papers discuss developments
since the publication of Fishman (1991) and/or make use of the
theoretical framework developed there.
Fleras, A. (1989)
``Te Kohanga Reo: A Maori renewal program in New Zealand,''
Canadian Journal of Native Education16.2.78-85.